Tag Archives: learning

How Loud is Too Loud?

May is Better Hearing and Speech Month!

By: Cindy Erdos, Au.D., CCC-A

The Stanley Cup playoffs are underway, and the finals start next week.  I love watching hockey and I am an audiologist, so when I came across an article titled “Can hockey playoffs harm your hearing?”  I had to read it.  The research says,  “YES,”  the level of “leisure” noise present during a hockey game is loud enough to damage your ears and hearing.  If you are lucky enough to get tickets to the Stanley Cup, or any hockey game, you should consider getting some ear plugs or earmuffs for your children.

Most people tend to think that hearing loss caused by noise only happens to adults who work in noisy environments or those who attend lots of rock concerts or elderly adults who have had a life-time of noise exposure.  Exposure to loud noise without proper protection can cause hearing damage to anyone, at any age.  There is a growing concern about noise-induced hearing loss in our children.  We need to protect our children’s ears from noise-induced hearing loss and we need to teach them to continue protecting their hearing throughout their lives.

Our Noisy World

Do you remember that last time you “heard” silence?  We live in a very noisy world.  We encounter sounds every day, all day long.  Traffic, sirens, machinery, lawn equipment, concerts, movie theaters, sporting events are just some of the sounds we encounter on a daily basis. Sound Sense points out that a lot of our children’s activities involve some degree of noise: school lunchrooms, sports and sporting arenas, movies, and electronic media.  As you look around you are likely to see children, and adults, listening to some type of personal listening devices.

Even some children’s toys produce high levels of sound.  The Sight and Hearing Association publishes the Noisy Toys List annually and recommends downloading a sound meter app on your smartphone to help measure noise.  Their rule of thumb is, “if a toy sounds too loud to you, it is too loud for the child.”

Top 3 Noisiest Toys via Sight & Hearing Associations Noisy Toy List 2016

WWE

 

WWE 3-Count Crushers: Roman Reigns
Ages 6+
104.4 dB(A)

 

roadripper

 

Road Rippers Rush & Rescue
Ages 3+
103.9 dB(A)

 

tonak.jpg

 

My First Tonka Wobble Wheels
Ages 1+
103.2 dB(A)

 

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recently published an article titled, “Too Loud!  For Too Long!” The article reports that hearing loss is the third most common chronic health condition and a major cause of hearing damage is noise exposure.  The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that a billion-young people worldwide could be at risk of hearing loss due to unsafe listening practices.

audiology

How Loud is Too Loud?

First thing to keep in mind is noise does not need to be unpleasant, or even physically uncomfortable to cause damage to your ears or hearing.   The intensity (loudness) of the sound and the time spent (duration) listening to the sound are critical. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels (dB).  Conversational speech is around 60 dB; a soft whisper is around 30 dB and a shouting directly into someone’s ear can be as high as 110 dB.  Your dishwasher probably runs about 70 dB and the sound of your hair dryer is around 90 dB.  City traffic (inside your car) is around 80-85 dB, but when riding a motorcycle, you are listening to around 95 dB of noise.  Watching your favorite sports team live may expose you to as much as 100 to 120 dB – depending on if your team is winning.

So how much is too much and how long is too long?  85 dB is the “magical” number. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommends any employee who is exposed to 85 dB of noise be included in a noise conservation program to ensure their hearing is monitored and they are instructed on hearing protection practices.  The American Academy of Audiology recommends any time you are exposed to 85 dB or louder you should use hearing protection.   In addition to how loud the sound, you need to be concerned about the length of time you spend listening to the sound.

The chart below gives more examples of typical sounds and the maximum recommended duration:

Leaf blower:                                       90 dB (2 hours can cause damage)

Sporting event:                                 100 dB (14 minutes can cause damage)

Rock concert:                                     110 dB (2 minutes can cause damage)

Siren:                                                    120 dB (1 minute can cause damage)

SOURCE: CDC Vital Signs, February 2017

Unless you have a sound level meter app on your phone, you may not know if a sound is 85 dB, 70 dB, or 110 dB.  Here are some signs that a noise may be too loud:

  • You need to raise your voice to be understood by someone standing nearby
  • The noise hurts your ears
  • You have a buzzing or ringing in your ears, even temporarily
  • You don’t hear as well as you normally do until several hours after you get away from the noise
  • When listening to music through your headphones you cannot carry on a conversation without shouting

Prevention & Protection

Most of us rely on hearing to communicate and stay connected to others.  As we know hearing is critical to speech and language development, speech and language are critical for learning and academic progress.  Even mild hearing loss can affect a child’s academic success.  The damage from noise not only causes hearing loss, but it can cause tinnitus (buzzing or ringing in the ears) and/or hyperacusis (increased sensitivity to sounds).

The good news is ear damage due to noise exposure is almost completely preventable.  With a little knowledge, you can protect your child’s ears, as well as your own.  You can also teach your child to recognize when sounds are dangerously loud and how to protect their ears and hearing for a lifetime.  It’s a Noisy Planet has activities and suggestions for encouraging children to protect their ears.

More tips for safer listening are:

1) Turn the noise down

2) Walk away or avoid the noise

3) Take breaks from the noise

4) Block the noise or use hearing protection

5) Use the 60:60 Rule:  listen to music at 60% maximum volume for no more than 60 minutes a day.

Putting cotton or tissue in your ears may make you feel like you are protecting your ears, but most likely you are not providing appropriate protection against sound and possibly causing more damage as you may feel like you can stay longer in the noise because you have “protected” them.  You should use products that are made specifically for protecting your ears from noise.  You can purchase disposable earplugs from a pharmacy.  You can order earmuffs for you or your children.  You can even have customized earplugs made which are often more comfortable as they fit your individual ears.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Damage due to noise is completely preventable.  First you need to recognize when a noise could potentially be dangerous, and then take step to prevent the sound from damaging the delicate structures or your ear.


 

If you are concerned that you or a loved one may have noise induced hearing damage, contact an audiologist at Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley for a complete hearing evaluation and more information on how you can keep the hearing that you have. Visit our website here.

Learning-Related Vision Problems

By: Carla D. Adams, OD, FCOVD

WHAT IS THE VISION TRIANGLE?
UntitledSome parents have received a notice that their child needs a complete eye examination.
Parents often take their child to an optometrist and anxiously watch as they are asked to distinguish between lenses. “Which is better -1 or 2?” While a routine exam is a good start it should not be the only test for many students. Since vision and learning are closely linked, problems with vision can often interfere with learning. A routine eye exam alone will not always detect all problems that could affect good vision and thus good learning. Parents should be aware of the vision triangle. There are three types of vision exams, two of which are beyond the routine exam performed by eye doctors. By understanding the vision triangle, it will help avoid frustrations. Parents are armed with options if their child should have academic problems related to how he or she interprets what is being taught, especially if the problems persists with eyeglass.

ROUTINE EYE EXAMS
The first part of the vision triangle is the routine eye exam (just like the example aimagebove). Routine eye exams can detect sight imperfections such as near-sighted, far-sighted and astigmatism. Routine exams can also detect more complex problems such as crossed-eyes and lazy eyes. These conditions are often diagnosed during routine eye exams and respond well to eyeglasses and contact lenses. However, if eyeglasses cured all learning related problems, then there would be an overabundance of “A” students. Clear vision or having 20/20 sight is only part of the vision triangle. Unfortunately, most optometrists and ophthalmologists do not proceed further.

FUNCTIONAL VISION
The second part of the vision triangle is centered on functional vision. To read smoothly, a child’s eyes must work well together. This is called binocularity. A depth perception test is one of several tests used to test this skill. Fine eye movements and focusing tests (accuracy, flexibility and stamina) should also be measured. There maybe deficits in this area if your child complains of readiUntitledng problems such as eye strain, fluctuating vision that will not stay clear, words that float off the page or even headaches. Maybe you even suspect that one of your child’s eyes do not look straight. These types of deficits do not always respond well to eyeglasses or contact lenses which is why some students continue to have problems after a routine exam. Vision therapy is often a good approach to treating such problems. Typically, only a few eye doctors offer therapy. More will be discussed about vision therapy later.

PERCEPTUAL VISION
Untitled1The third and final part of the vision triangle is perceptual visual testing. Visual perception involves not only the eyes but also the brain and how it interprets and organizes information. This type of disorder surfaces around the age of 6 when children first learn to read. You should consider perceptual problems if your child tends to avoid reading and writing. Children with perceptual problems may reverse letters, print poorly and have trouble learning. Eye glasses alone do not solve perceptual problems. A vision therapy consultation with a pediatric optometrist is advised when learning problems persist.

What is Vision Therapy (V.T.)?
Just as eyeglasses and contact lenses work well to treat sight imperfections (i.e., near sightedness, far sightedness, etc.), functional and perceptual problems are often best atreated with vision therapy. It is a type of physical therapy for the eyes. The purpose is to resolve visual problems that interfere with reading and learning. V.T. helps children develop or improve visual skills, read with efficiency and changes how a child processes or
interprets visual information.

Vision therapy is a progressive program of vision exercises or procedures performed under an optometrist’s supervision. The therapy sessions are individualized for each child. The meeting sessions are conducted in-office, once a week.

Following is a list of symptoms that often respond well to vision therapy:

• Blurred or double vision
• Headaches or eye strain
• Crossed eyes or strabismus
• Avoidance or dislike of reading
• Short attention span when reading
• Turning or tilting head to favor one eye
• Rubbing the eyes
• Slow reading speed
• Difficulty remembering what is read
• Omitting or repeating works or confusing letters
• Poor eye-hand coordination
• Losing one’s place while reading or using finger as a guide

For more information regarding vision visit our website:
http://www.easterseals.com/dfv/our-programs/medical-rehabilitation/clinics.html

Editor’s Note:
Dr. Carla Adams is a Developmental Optometrist with a specialization in pediatrics and vision therapy.  Her training includes an emphasis on serving children with special needs.  Dr. Adams is successful in treating children struggling in the classroom as well as children with attention deficit, PDD and autism.  She is a partner of the Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley Jayne Shover Center in Elgin.  Learn more about her care via  www.optique-eyecare.com

Throw Like A Pro

By: Cassidy McCoy PT, DPT

Baseball season is back, and summer is almost here, so let’s get out and get playing. Since Chicago is now home to the World Series Champions, here are some pointers to get your kids throwing like the pros.

baseball blog
Initial Position

1. Face the side so your non-throwing arm is facing the target.

2. Using your elbow or fingertips, line yourself up so you are pointing directly at the middle of the target.

 

 

baseball blog 1The Throw

1. The Wind Up: Bring your throwing arm up so your elbow is bent at a 90 degree angle and is in line with your shoulder. The majority of your weight should be in your back foot.

2. Step forward with the leg opposite your throwing arm (toes pointed forwards) as you begin to bring your arm forward gradually shifting your weight into the front foot.

3. The Release: Should occur as your arm comes over your head, slightly higher then the forehead.

 

The Follow-Through (End Position)baseball blog 2

  1. The majority of your weight should be in your front foot, with the heel of your back foot, or the entire foot, lifted off the ground.
  2. Your arm should fully move diagonally across your trunk ending at the hip/leg opposite of the throwing arm, with your trunk rotated so your shoulder are facing forwards (towards the target).

Visit our website for a list of summer community based therapy programs such as Physical Therapy to work on the fundamentals of sports, emphasizing coordination, timing, physical fitness and fun! Click here for more info.

Executive Functioning Skills: CO-OP Model Expanded

By: Laura Van Zandt, OTR/L

Recently I wrote a blog on how to develop and strengthen executive function skills using the CO-OP (GoalPlanDoCheck) model. I thought I’d take a moment and expand on a very important foundational skill.

“Do with me and not for me”

So often we have great intentions and we do for our children. This isn’t a bad thing; we want our children to succeed. It’s hard to see them struggling. When we do for our children we neglect one very important step in developing their executive function skills. We accidentally take away their ability to plan, prioritize, problem solve, manage their space/time/materials, and reflect.

If we do not expect our children to be an “active participant” in his or her life, then we take away the many opportunities to learn the daily life skills needed for adulthood and the ability for learning how to tackle and master challenges. Involving your child in daily activities and encouraging them to be an active participant builds a strong sense of competency and positive self-esteem. It helps provide the confidence that your child can do many things and learn to ask for assistance when things go wrong.

Getting your child involved doesn’t have to be an elaborate process. Take whatever you are currently doing for your child and give him/her a simple job with the task. If the child is used to doing “nothing” start very small. Any job, regardless of how small (e.g. hold the pillow and place it on the bed while you make the bed, put one or two dishes into the dishwasher, drop a few articles of clothes in the washer, raise his arms to put his shirt on, etc.) is a start.

The best therapeutic opportunities are often right in front of you. There are endless activities (e.g. cooking, laundry, shopping, bathing, etc.) that make up your day.  You can use all your little interactions for many opportunities to develop executive function skills. By taking a little more time, you can  get your child involved around the house. Instead of just doing, slow down and ask for help. You might find your child enjoys helping and you may even start making some new memories together!

Basi Family

By doing with your child, you have the opportunity to break down the task so your child can be successful. In the process your child then starts to learn that a goal (e.g. making a bed) has many steps to the plan (e.g. put on the fitted sheet, do opposite corners, put on the sheet, put on the duvet/comforter, hold open the pillow case and put in the pillow, place the pillows on the bed). When we do the goal sometimes we work with a team (e.g. you and your child) and sometimes we need to adjust our plan (e.g. having them help this time) and sometimes we check throughout the process (e.g. did we get all the pillows?). You should celebrate with your child by “doing it together” with praise, giving high fives, and other gestures of companionship that you and your child share together. In turn, your child feels productive and competent; driving a desire to learn more. Over time your child learns to feel “good” about doing, and the typical daily challenges that are now a major struggle start to melt away. The child becomes more eager to learn, rather than driven to avoid.

I briefly used GoalPlanDoCheck but let’s use the concept in two better examples. Let’s use the first example for getting your children ready for school and let’s use the second example to model tools you use to help yourself get ready. Both ways involve your children.

1) Helping Your Child Get Ready in the Morning

Goal– While first getting your child up in the morning, tell them “It’s time to get ready so our goal is for you to be at school on time.” Use the word goal so your child knows that is GettingReadyforSchoolyour expectation.

Plan– Talk to your child about the steps. “First we need to go the bathroom so we can wash your face and brush your teeth. This usually helps wake you up so you can focus on getting dressed all by yourself. When you are getting dressed all by yourself, mom and dad will be downstairs making your breakfast. You need to eat your breakfast and then grab your lunch so we can get you to school. Don’t forget to double check your backpack and make sure you have everything you need for school or any after school activities.”

Depending on your child and the age of your child, you might simplify the plan. You might use visuals to help your child remember the plan. There are tons of different strategies that can worked within each child’s individual plan that are tailored to his or her specific needs and specific interests to ensure motivation. Depending on your child you might also need to use incentives to help with motivation and time management.

Do– Divide and conquer. Depending on your child’s age, he or she would not be expected to do all the pieces of the plan.

Check– Keep talking to your child. “Did we get everything? Are we on time? What helped us stay on time? What were time robbers?”

2) Modeling Tools You Use to Get Ready in the Morning

Children learn through modeling. This is a great way to begin introducing your child to this concept as well as teach through modeling different strategies.

Goal– While first getting up in the morning and working with your child, talk aloud to them. Talking aloud is not something that comes naturally and must be practiced; however, talking aloud is a great strategy for modeling the development of executive function skills. Tell them “It’s time to get ready so our goal is for you to be at school on time.” Use the word goal so your child knows that is your expectation.

Plan– Talk to your child about the steps; however, instead of listing the steps like we did in the first example, we are going to focus on you and tools that you use. This is important for kids who just seem disorganized, can’t get their arousal level just right, and just need help. Modeling is great to let them know we all use a variety of tools and that tools can be helpful. Here is an example of a conversation you might have while getting ready with your child:

“It’s time to get ready so our goal is for you to be at school on time. I don’t know about you, but mom is feeling really tired today. I have to get up earlier than you so that I can help you get ready. Do you know what helps me wake up so I can focus on getting ready? I start my morning with a shower. Sometimes the feel of the water on my skin wakes me up. Let’s try washing your face since we don’t have time for a shower.”

Notice how in this example, you discussed with your child a tool you use (shower) and provided them with an option to try. This is a great way to model. There are lots of other dialogues you can have with your child to model tools. This was just one example.

Do– Looks the same as in the first example; however, depending on the tool you may or may not be modeling. Do in the example above was telling your child and then providing your child with an example to do together.

Check– Remains the same. In this stage, we are actively involving our child to think and problem solve.

Have fun with it and know that you are working on developing and strengthening your child’s executive function skills. Executive function skills are developmental and must be taught. When working with your child, you are setting a path toward greater independence. Start simple and build gradually.

If your child is not used to doing much, start with a couple of activities a day. Pick a time of the day when you are not feeling rushed and your child is not feeling stressed. This will give you practice in how to guide, assist, and engage your child. Once it starts to feel natural, expand the “we-dos” into many daily activities. Do them together, giving him/her a little part to play, and gradually expanding his/her role to build more competence.

You are an important part in the development of your child. The more you can help your child think about what they do and why, the more they will be able to use that thinking in any problem solving situation. As my other blog concluded, the overall goal is to teach your child how to work through a problem using a planned approach instead of acting impulsively.

To learn more about Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley’s occupational therapy services visit: http://www.easterseals.com/dfv/our-programs/medical-rehabilitation/occupational-therapy.html. 

Climbing and Bouldering Therapy: The Benefits to Rock Climbing

By: Laura Van Zandt, OTR/L

This summer, physical and occupational therapists are excited to provide therapy on the walls as part of our summer outreach program “Climbing and Bouldering.” The varied terrain offers countless opportunities for physical and sensory challenges.

Rock climbing has so many benefits for kids of all ages and abilities.15_Patrick_Krueger

  • Strengthening and endurance: Climbing walls require strength and flexibility to
    successfully maneuver. Kids develop hand and finger strength as they grasp and hang onto holds of all different shapes and sizes. Some of the holds are tiny and don’t have much to grasp. Making your way up a climbing wall also requires a great deal of core strength and leg strength as your hold yourself in space. All that movement and use of your arms, legs, and core will help develop endurance for other gross motor activities.
  • Sensory processing: Kids get great proprioceptive input (sensory input to the muscles and joints) and vestibular (movement-based) experiences as they power themselves up and over while using the different holds as well as glide back down to the floor from the top of the wall! For kids who experience gravitational insecurity, rock climbing can be an extreme challenge but can be graded to meet their needs. For example, kids who are reluctant to climb high up on the wall can work on moving from side to side first. Children who also experience tactile sensitivities could also be help by all the proprioceptive input into their hands to help desensitize prior to working with different textures.
  • Motor planning and visual spatial/perceptual skills: Climbing is an awesome way to help kids develop motor planning skills. Indoor rock climbing is a great puzzle just waiting for your child to solve! The holds are all different shapes and colors. Most climbing walls also have colored tape markings that show climbers different paths they can take up the wall. This makes it easy to give a child instructions (e.g. “step your right foot on the blue hold” or “find the next hold with green tape next to it”) to challenge their abilities. Also, climbing walls usually have “routes” with
    a variety of difficulty levels, making it easy to adjust the activity depending on the skill level of the child.

    15_Brady Pembroke

  • Bilateral coordination: When kids are rock climbing, they must use both sides of their body together, usually in an alternating pattern — right hand and right foot move up to the next level, followed by the left hand and left foot. Also, kids have to learn how to differentiate between the movements on either side of their bodies. They stabilize themselves with one foot/hand while motor planning how to grasp onto and step on the next holds with their other foot and hand.
  • Confidence: Allowing kids to move outside of their comfort zone in a safe and controlled environment will undoubtedly help to build their confidence and promote development of positive self-esteem.

If you think your child might benefit from this outreach group, please visit our website for more information on Climbing and Bouldering Therapy and check out other Community Based Therapy Programs for Summer 2017!

The World is “Lighting Up Blue” for World Autism Month

By: Laura Bueche MOT OTR/L

Every April 2, in conjunction with the international autism community, Autism Speaks spreads awareness of autism spectrum disorder with its Light It Up Blue Campaign. Thousands of organizations around the world, such as Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley participate in this event to spread education, resources, and awareness for greater understanding and acceptance of Austism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Source- (1)
Source-

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopment disorder. It refers to a wide range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and non-verbal communication. The Term “spectrum”
reflects the wide variation in challenges and strengths possessed by each person with autism.
https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism

08_Kai_JudyThere is no known single cause of autism, but increased awareness and early diagnosis/intervention and access to appropriate services/supports lead to significantly improved outcomes.

In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued their ADDM autism prevalence report. The report concluded that the prevalence of autism had risen to 1 in every 68 births in the United States – nearly twice as great as the 2004 rate of 1 in 125 – and almost 1 in 54 boys.
http://www.autism-society.org/what-is/

Signs and Symptoms

People with ASD often have problems with social, emotional, and communication skills. They might repeat certain behaviors and might not want change in their daily activities. Many people with ASD also have different ways of learning, paying attention, or reacting to things. Signs of ASD begin during early childhood and typically last throughout a person’s life.

Children or adults with ASD might:

  • not point at objects to show interest (for example, not point at an airplane flying overhead)
  • not look at objects when another person points at them
  • have trouble relating to others or not have an interest in other people at all
  • avoid eye contact and want to be alone
  • have trouble understanding other people’s feelings or talking about their own feelings
  • prefer not to be held or cuddled, or might cuddle only when they waAutism Diagnostic Clinic 2 - Richard Howent to
  • appear to be unaware when people talk to them, but respond to other sounds
  • be very interested in people, but not know how to talk, play, or relate to them
  • repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in place of normal language
  • have trouble expressing their needs using typical words or motions
  • not play “pretend” games (for example, not pretend to feed a doll)
  • repeat actions over and over again
  • have trouble adapting when a routine changes
  • have unusual reactions to the way things smell, taste, look, feel, or sound
  • lose skills they once had (for example, stop saying words they were using)

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html

Meet Some People With Autism

Pierre https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fnCzF2JdDWM

Max https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IA5FHPUeWpQ

Lesey https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWPf9toT_3M

Cullen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EryEs1gIu4s

Ellie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56VCxks8jGA

Autism Diagnostic Clinic at Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley

Early detection and intervention is the best way to help children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental disabilities gain greater independence.  If you are concerned about your child’s development inquire about our medical diagnostic and autism diagnostic clinics.

Additional Services at Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley for Children & Young Adults with Autism Include:

  • Occupational therapy to learn daily life skills and help integrate sensory processing difficulties
  • Physical therapy to improve strength, endurance, and gait
  • Speech therapy to help children with ASD improve speech, articulation, language , and interaction
  • Assistive technology to give children a way to access language through technology devices
  • Social Work services to support families and provide behavior strategies
  • Parent Liaison services also offers parents support and are full of great recourses
  • Case Management services to help coordinate this complex network of caregivers and providers
  • Feeding Clinic and Nutrition Therapy provide families with feeding, digestive, allergy, food sensitivity, GI, and sensory related issues.
  • Easter Seals also offers families a variety of community outreach programs including: social groups, physical fitness groups, feeding groups, and aquatics.

To learn more about Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley’s Autism services visit our website.

Executive Function Skills: CO-OP Model

By: Laura Van Zandt, OTR/L

GOALPLANDOCHECK.

Executive functioning skills seems like the new ‘buzz’ word for therapists and parents working with children of all ages. Executive functioning skills include the ability to pay attention, recall a series of information, manage your time, be flexible, self-monitor for your emotions and impulses, initiate tasks, problem solve, persist as well as plan, organize, and sequence. One of our former speech therapists, Jennifer Tripoli, wrote a nice blog in August 2014 which you can refer to for more information regarding the definition of executive function skills.

One strategy that I like to teach children is a concept from the Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance or CO-OP model by Helene Polatajko and Angela Mandich called GOALPLANDOCHECK.

The CO-OP model is a “client-centered, performance based, problem solving approach that enables skill acquisition through a process of strategy use and guided discovery.” Occupational performance is what we do and how we do things throughout our day. Cognitive orientation implies that what we do and how we do things involve a cognitive process. The approach is designed to guide individuals to independently discover and develop cognitive strategies to meet their goals. That sounds like a lot of executive functioning skill development to me!

The use of self-talk is key with GOALPLANDOCHECK. When we require children to walk us through their plan and teach us their steps by talking aloud, they engablogge in more effective approaches to learning.

When teaching children, we start with the GOAL. We teach the child to understand the word GOAL as being something we are working towards completing. One strategy that has been helpful for visualizing the end GOAL is the concept of “future glasses.” Have the child wear funny glasses or simply make your hands in the shape of glasses. Then close your eyes and visualize the completed GOAL and what it might look like when completed.

The word PLAN implies there are a series of steps we need to do in order to meet our GOAL. To me the PLAN is critical for developing our problem solving skills.

Next we DO our goal.

Finally, we CHECK. The CHECK is really important for developing and strengthening our meta-cognitive skills. It is very important to understand how we can do better next time based on what we did today. CHECK gives the opportunity for feedback control by finding and correcting a mistake before the plan is final. It allows for incorporating flexibility and the ability to shift strategies when the current plan is not working.

KevinThis process helps children strengthen their executive function skills in the areas of working memory to pull from previous experiences, planning and prioritizing steps involved, persisting to achieve goals, and reflecting back by checking in with the plan to see if it was successful. If not, make alterations in order to be successful, eliminate time robbers to help with impulse control, and manage their time. Remember, initially it is about the practice and not the end result. It is okay to make mistakes. We all learn from mistakes.

Parents and family are an important part of the CO-OP approach. The effectiveness of the intervention is greatly increased when everyone is involved. Parents and family help the
individual child to acquire and practice these skills. It also helps them to transfer and generalize the learned strategies into everyday life. By providing explanations as well as guidance and asking questions at an appropriate developmental level, we provide just enough support necessary for the child to be successful. The more you can help children think about what they do and why, the more they will be able to use that thinking in any problem solving situation. The overall goal is to teach a child how to work through a problem using a planned approach instead of acting impulsively.

To learn more about Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley’s occupational therapy services visit: http://www.easterseals.com/dfv/our-programs/medical-rehabilitation/occupational-therapy.html. 

Recommendations for Pacifiers

By: Jessica Drake-Simmons M.S. CCC-SLP

Babies show a natural tendency to suck on fingers and thumbs from the time they are in utero.  Sucking provides comfort and is a natural way for babies to explore the environment.  Allowing a baby to suck on a pacifier can have the advantages of helping to sooth a fussy baby, providing a distraction and helping a baby fall asleep.   Additionally, pacifiers may help minimize reflux.  The Mayo Clinic suggests that a pacifier could help reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome when used at nap time and bedtime.

Baby nico on swingThe problem with pacifiers comes when little ones become dependent on them.  As a speech-language pathologist, seeing kids more frequently in their toddler years and beyond, I see some of the detrimental effects that persistent pacifier use can cause.  The preferred oral rest posture is having the lips closed, tongue placed up against the roof of the mouth, a slight space between the teeth and nasal breathing.  This oral rest posture supports dental alignment and wide rounded dental arches. Prolonged pacifier use (or other sucking habits) can cause a child’s teeth to be misaligned or not come in properly.

A study from Van Norman, 2001 found that 60% of dental malocclusions were related to sucking habits.  When the shape of the roof of the mouth is changed and dental malocclusions are created, kids can develop articulation errors such as a forward tongue position for production of /s/ (lisping).  Obstructing the mouth with a pacifier can negatively impact babbling and imitation of sounds.  Additionally, there is a correlation between pacifier use and increased incidence of ear infections.  Frequent ear infections are a common cause of speech and language delays.

Guidelines to follow for pacifier use:

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends waiting to offer a pacifier until a baby is 3-4 weeks old when breast feeding is well established.
  • Don’t use the pacifier as a first line of defense. Try other strategies such as changing positions or rocking the baby to sooth them. pacifier
  • Use the appropriate size pacifier for your babies age in order to help maintain correct jaw alignment.
  • Recommendations vary between 6 months and 2 years for when it is appropriate to discontinue pacifier use. It can be easiest to wean the pacifier by the time a baby is 12 months.
  • Use pacifiers that are rounded on all sides. This allows for a more natural position of the tongue during non-nutritive sucking.

For help with discontinuing pacifier use: http://www.orofacialmyology.com/StopPacifier

To learn more about speech language-pathology and Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley visit eastersealsdfvr.org

How to Promote Reading Awareness in Young Children

By:  Kelly Lopresti, Director of Child Development & Christopher J. Lopresti, Reading Specialist

Each year at the beginning of March, school children kick off National Reading Month by celebrating the birthday of the beloved Dr. Seuss. Teachers design contests, family literacy events, and even pajama and pillow days to provide cozy mornings of uninterrupted reading. With help from Read Across America, the goal is to motivate kids to read every day of the year.

What about the little ones? Some think young children can’t participate. With a little help, they can enjoy National Reading Month too.

Literacy skills begin to develop at birth. At the Lily Garden Child Care Center we know how important early reading can be to help a child’s later success with reading and writing.

Skills closely related to later success with reading and writing:

  • Writing letters or one’s own name—the ability to write single letters in isolation, or write their own name
  • Alphabet knowledge—the ability to name letters and the sounds they make
  • Phonological awareness—the ability to hear and manipulate the sounds of spoken language (such as hear the beginning sound of a word)
  • Rapid letter or number naming—the ability to quickly name letters or numbers
  • Phonological memory—the ability to remember spoken information for a short period of time
  • Rapid object or color naming—the ability to quickly name random series of colors or objects

readOne way to develop these skills, give the gift of reading aloud to your child.

There are several benefits of reading aloud to your children. From bonding with your children to helping them strengthen skills in writing, creativity, listening and more. According to Scholastic’s Kids and Family Reading Report, the frequency of children being read aloud to at home drops sharply after age 5.  It drops even lower after age 8.  Try these resources to keep your reading bond strong with your kids.

  • The more you read aloud to your kids the more they will love reading.
  • It builds their vocabularies.
  • It develops background knowledge that they will need to understand the meaning of texts when they read on their own.
  • It inspires a lifetime love of reading and is a great way to model making reading a part of their everyday lives.
  • It’s one of the best ways to bond with your kids.

What you read aloud can vary day to dayMix it up – short, long, funny, factual – it’s all good.    

tipLiteracy Coach Reading Tip:  Please remember to read boldfaced headings and captions to your children in preparation for their academic careers.  The information therein is often used as source material for higher order thinking questions and can be used to expand their knowledge.

  • Chapter Books: Some read alouds go on for days and weeks because you may be reading a chapter a night of a longer novel or chapter book.
  • Picture Books: You may want to share a favorite picture book. Pick a former favorite of your child’s and revisit it.  They will love it just as much as they did when they were younger. Picture books are short 10-15 minutes. You can read picture books over and over again.
  • Poetry: Reading a short poem in the morning (or whenever you have time) can be a great idea. Find poems that relate to the season or what’s happening in their daily life.

Try one of these poems and see if your children like it.

Visit the below websites for a list of the top children’s book of 2016 and other resources.

Lily Garden Teacher’s Top Pickskeep-calm-and-love-reading

The Little Mouse and The Big Hungry Bear by Don and Audrey Wood -The pictures are amazing.  I also like that the big hungry bear is mentioned throughout the book but never pictured.   It is left up to the child’s imagination to picture the bear. -Jenni Moses

How I Became a Pirate by Melinda Long – It’s a story from a child’s perspective which the children can relate to. It’s a story about fun pirates! Every class I’ve worked with loves pirates and it’s something that holds their interest. Also, the author uses very descriptive words that really puts you in the story! -Katie Kwiatek

Harold and the Purple Crayon by Crocket Johnson – Harold lets his imagination go through art and his drawing! -Julie DeSalvo

We are in a Book by Mo Williams – I love this book! Mo Williams is such a creative author and I recommend all his work. The characters come to life well if you have a crazy imagination like I do or enjoy doing voices. Piggie reminds me of myself, so doing voices for Piggie and elephant is very fun. -Melissa Gonzalez

Go Away Big Green Monster by Ed Emberly – Toddlers love this book.  The children like to point to whatever facial feature is on that page.

The Bunny Rabbit Show by Sandra Boynton  – Toddlers love to sing along! -Christy Stringini

Naughty Little Monkeys by Jim Aylesworth -This book is about what happens when you leave twenty-six little monkeys home alone.  It’s a funny and colorful book that children want to read over and over again.  My son loved this book! -Kelly Lopresti

For more information about our inclusive daycare and our program philosophy visit: eastersealslilygarden.org.

Helping Children Understand and Process Emotions

By: Laura Van Zandt, OTR/L

One of my favorite resources as a pediatric occupational therapist to help kids begin to understand and process emotions as well as come up with strategies for self-regulation is the Zones of Regulation curriculum developed by Leah Kuypers. The Zones of Regulation helps teach kids how to self-regulate and deal with everyday strong emotions or unexpected emotions for different social environments.

zones-of-regulation

The zones can be compared to traffic signs. When we see a green light, one is ‘good to go’ and can keep proceeding forward without making any changes. A yellow light, on the other hand, means to be aware or take caution. Sometimes we can keep going and other times we need to make a change. A red light (or stop sign) means stop. Often the behavior we are demonstrating is unexpected. The blue zone is most often compared to the rest area sign where you go to rest or re-energize.

 

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Photo by Christine Carroll

When teaching children to begin using the Zones of Regulation, I tend to follow three stages of learning.

  • In stage one, the child learns how to identify the terminology and sort emotions according to the physiological features of each specific zones
    • Examples:
    • Frowning, yawning, crying = blue;
    • Happy, calm, focused= green
    • Upset, butterflies in stomach, Heart beating fast = yellow;
    • Yelling, body feels tenses = red).
    • In this stage, there is a lot of detective work and identifying features of body language. I like to use a variety of pictures, books, and movie clips when possible to help during stage one.
  • In stage two, children start to learn strategies to adjust their zone and help them manage their internal emotional feelings. Children learn a variety of sensory motor strategies (e.g. swinging, taking deep breaths, walking, squeezing something) as well as cognitive behavioral strategies (e.g. expected versus unexpected, size of the problem, inner critic versus inner coach, stop/opt/go).
  • In stage three, children are more independent and are beginning to select appropriate tools to help with self-regulation. Depending on the child’s age, supports might still be in place such as visuals for choosing appropriate tools.

It is important to remember that ALL of the zones are expected to occur at one time or another. At some point we may feel tired in the Blue Zone, calm in the Green Zone, worried in the Yellow Zone, and possibly furious or elated in the Red Zone.

The Zones of Regulation focuses on teaching children how to manage their zone based on the environment and the people around them. The Zones of Regulation was designed to support people in managing all the feelings they experience, without passing judgment on what people are feeling or how they are behaving.

Leah suggests four main points to keep in mind with beginning to use the Zones of Regulation with any child:

  1. It is natural to experience all of the Zones; there is no bad zone.
  2. Our Zone is defined by the feelings and internal states we experience on the inside.
  3. Our behavior is a byproduct of how we manage our Zone; therefore, consequences should not be tied to a Zone.
  4. The context we are in helps us figure out how to manage our Zone so our behavior meets the demands of the social environment, and in doing so we are able to achieve the tasks we are trying to accomplish and/or the social goals we’ve set for ourselves in that situation.

Here are some additional tips to help kids develop their emotional intelligence and emotional self-regulation:

  1. Provide as much stability and consistency as possible. Consistent limit-setting, clear household rules, and predictable routines help children know what to expect. This is turns help them feel calmer and more secure.
  2. Model, model, model. We cannot do this enough. How we react and deal with emotions will establish the foundation for how those around us will also respond. We usually don’t have a choice in what we feel, but we always have a choice about how we choose to act regarding our feelings. Children learn from us. When we yell, they learn to yell. If we remain calm and speak respectfully, they learn to do the same. Every time you model in front of your child how to respond to an emotion, your child is learning.
  3. Connect. Spend time everyday unplugging and connecting with your child. Young children first learn how to regulate by being soothed by their parents. When you notice your child getting dysregulated, the most important thing you can do is try to reconnect.
  4. Name it and Accept It. Calling attention to your child’s feelings helps them understand what is going on inside them and learn that it isn’t okay to feel different emotions. Your child will know that someone understands, which might make him or her feel a little better.

The Zones of Regulation was designed to be used with students in early elementary through adulthood. Where relevant, the curriculum offers activities within the lesson plans for younger students. The Zones of Regulation was turned into a curriculum and published by Social Thinking in 2011, titled The Zones of Regulation: A Curriculum Designed to Foster Self-Regulation and Emotional Control. Since that time Leah Kuypers has expanded it into two apps, The Zones of Regulation and The Zones of Regulation: Exploring Emotions.

To learn more about Easter Seals DuPage & Fox Valley’s occupational therapy services visit: http://www.easterseals.com/dfv/our-programs/medical-rehabilitation/occupational-therapy.html.