Tag Archives: sensory processing

What is Sensory Processing Disorder?

By: Laura Van Zandt, OTR/L

As an occupational therapist, I have heard sensory referred to as many different things. Just a few examples include “sensory integration, sensory processing, sensory disorder, sensory dysfunction”. Not only is this confusing as an occupational therapist, but it has to be extremely confusing to parents too.

Sensory processing is a broad term that is used to refer to the way sensations are received and organized by the brain and how our bodies respond to this sensation and appropriately use it to interact within our environment. Our brains not only process information through the senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and sound but our brains also process information from our inner ear, muscles, joints, and ligaments to help us with movement and body position. All the sensory systems need to work together for effective sensory processing.

Overview of these sensory systems

  • Visual sense: is the ability to interpret what is seen regarding contrasts of light and dark, color, and movement.
  • Olfactory sense: is the ability to interpret smells
  • Auditory sense: is the ability to interpret what is heard regarding volume, pitch, and rhythm.
  • Gustatory sense: is the ability to interpret to receive taste sensations
  • Tactile sense: is the ability to interpret touch sensations like pressure, vibration, movement, temperature and pain.
  • Proprioceptive Sense: is the ability to interpret where your body parts are in relation to each other.
  • Vestibular sense: is the ability to interpret information relating to movement and balance related

If there is inefficiency in processing sensory information, a child’s ability to function is compromised and there be difficulties in the child’s arousal, alertness, attention as well as play, self-care, fine motor and gross motor skills. This difficulty has increasingly become known as sensory processing disorder and was first recognized by Dr. A. Jean Ayres, occupational therapist, educational psychologist, and neuroscientists.

Sensory processing disorder can be a confusing term. No two children are alike. Symptoms of sensory processing disorder, like most disorders, occur within a broad spectrum of abilities. While most of us have occasional difficulties processing sensory information, for individuals with sensory processing disorder, these difficulties are persistent and can significantly disrupt everyday life.

22_Everett_MazzieSome children may experience difficulties processing sensory information in all or only a few areas of sensory processing. Likewise, it is also common for some children to not experience difficulties in any one sensory system but have difficulties combining the sensory systems to develop a meaningful response. A child’s response to a certain type of sensory input or activity may vary from one instance to the next and is impacted by the events preceding the activity, how the child feels (tired, fidgety, ill, healthy), and the context in which the activity occurs (quiet, noisy, busy, structured). When describing a child’s sensory processing, it is important to remember that anyone’s sensory processing patterns are merely a reflection of that person’s ways of responding to sensory experiences in the course of everyday life (at home and school). Knowing a person’s patterns creates a tool for gaining insights about what settings and activities are likely to be easier or more challenging and reveals possibilities for navigating successfully in everyday life.

Sensory processing disorders can be divided into three main areas: sensory modulation, sensory-based motor, and sensory discrimination.

Sensory modulation disorder refers to the ability to filter sensations and to attend to those that are relevant in a graded and adaptive manner whereas sensory discrimination disorder refers to difficulty interpreting subtle qualities of objects, places, people or other environments.

Sensory modulation disorder can further be broken down into children who are over-responsive, under-responsive, or sensory cravers/seekers. Children who are sensory over-responsive are often predisposed to respond too much, too soon, or for too long to sensory stimuli most people find quite tolerable. These children are often in ‘fight or flight’ to common daily sensations and may try to avoid or minimize sensations or act out to counterbalance feeling constantly bombarded.

20150320_ES-LegoRoom-19.jpgFor example, a child who is over-responsive to touch sensation may find physical contact, clothing, and other touch sensory input difficult. Children who are sensory under-responsive are often unaware of sensory stimuli, have a delay before responding, or responses are muted/less intense as compared to the average person. They may appear withdrawn, difficult to engage, or self-absorbed because they do not detect the sensory input to the environment. For example, a child who is under-responsive to touch sensation may not be aware of clothing twisted on their body or messes on their face. The child who is sensory craving is driven to obtain sensory stimulation but getting the stimulation results in disorganization. They tend to be constantly moving, crashing, bumping, and/or jumping. They may “need” to touch everything and not understand what is their space versus other space. Sensory cravers can be difficult to decipher between children with ADHD.

In children whose sensory processing of messages from their muscles and joints is impaired, posture and motor skills can be affected. Children with a sensory postural disorder may have a poor perception of position of body, poorly developed movement patterns that depend on core stability, and appear weak with poor endurance. When posture is impaired these children might seek additional support by leaning on walls or resting their head on their hands when working at the table. When motor skills are involved these children often have difficulty with the ability to make a plan to execute an action as well as execute the necessary actions supporting the performance.

Click here to link to our sensory processing intake form to see if your child might benefit from an occupational therapy evaluation to determine if there is a sensory basis for your child’s difficulties.

With effective treatment provided by an occupational therapist, your child can develop the ability to process sensory information in an adaptive manner and learn strategies to help him or her cope with everyday experiences. Our occupational therapists are trained to use a variety of different standardized tests and clinical observations as well as caregiver input to help put all the pieces together of the puzzle and make appropriate referrals. Then our therapists expertly look at the match between the child, the activities and expectations, and the context to determine when there is a mismatch that needs intervention attention.

For more information visit our sensory processing webpage and visit the links below.

 

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My Child Needs Deep Pressure! What Do I Do?

By: Laura Bueche, MOT OTR/L

Sensory Processing

Our bodies are constantly receiving and processing sensory information around us. Our senses give us the information we need to function in the world. We receive information from stimuli both outside and inside our bodies. Our sensory systems include auditory (hearing), vision, olfactory (smell), vestibular (movement), tactile (touch), gustatory (taste), and proprioceptive (body awareness). Sensory processing is the neurological process that organizes and interprets all the sensations we receive so we can function effectively within the environment.

What is Deep Pressure?

CatherineDeep touch pressure is a combination of a tactile and proprioceptive input which is often provided by firm holding, firm stroking, cuddling, hugging, and squeezing.

The proprioceptive sense refers to the sensory input and feedback that tells us about movement and body position. Proprioceptive receptors are located within our muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons, and connective tissues. It is one of the “deep senses” and could be considered the “position sense” (as Carol Stock Kranowitz refers to it in her book entitled  The Out-of-Sync Child.

If a child is having difficulty processing proprioceptive input, they’re brain isn’t receiving proper messages regarding whether muscles are being stretched, whether joints are bending or straightening, and how much of each of these is happening, children may seek out more intense forms of proprioceptive or deep pressure input. Kids with tactile and/or proprioceptive sensory processing dysfunction may seek out deep pressure input to send a stronger message to their nervous system. Deep pressure may help them “dampen” averse tactile sensations or may give them a greater sense of where their body is in a space.

 

Indicators of Deep Pressure Seeking

  • Tensing/squeezing muscles of the body
  • Crashing into furniture
  • Enjoys climbing into small spaces
  • Head banging
  • Grinding teeth
  • Pushing on chin
  • Stomping feet
  • Mouthing non-food items
  • Toe walking
  • Leaning into people

brushingDeep Pressure Input Activities

Deep Pressure Input Benefits

Deep pressure touch has been found to have beneficial effects in a variety of clinical settings (Barnard and Brazelton 1990, Gunzenhauser 1990). In anecdotal reports, deep touch pressure has been described to produce a calming effect in children with psychiatric disorders. Deep pressure stimulation, such as rolling up in a gym mat, has been used to calm children with autistic disorder and ADHD (Ayres 1979, King 1989). Lorna King (personal communication, 1990) reports that children with sleeping problems appear to sleep better inside of a mummy sleeping bag, which adapts to fit the body snuggly. It also has been used to reduce tactile defensiveness in children who cannot tolerate being touched. McClure and Holtz-Yotz (1991) found that deep pressure applied by foam-padded splints on the arms reduced self-injurious behavior and self-stimulation in an autistic child. (Ayers, 1992)

Deep touch stimulation is beneficial to typically developing babies (Barnard and Brazelton 1990, Gunzenhauser 1990). Institutionalized babies who received supplemental tactile stimulation, mainly deep touch pressure, developed more typically (Provence and Lipton 1962). Premature babies who receive stroking and tightly bound swaddling also are reported to show definite benefits (Anderson 1986, Field et al. 1986, Lieb et al. 1980). (Ayers, 1992)

If you think you child is seeking deep pressure input or has a sensory processing disorder, schedule an occupational therapy evaluation before trying to implement a sensory program at home. For more information on our occupational therapy program visit: http://www.easterseals.com/dfv/our-programs/medical-rehabilitation/occupational-therapy.html. 

 

A Super Sensory Summer

By: Laura Bueche MOT OTR/L

Summertime is the best time for some creative sensory play outside. Your child will have a blast learning and exploring with these sensory summer activities that won’t break the bank.

IDEAS TO INSPIRE YOUR LITTLE SPROUT

Garden Party!

Fill a tub with soil. Hide plastic bugs, coins, or dinosaurs.
Use shovels or hands to find the treasures.

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Paint pots, plant seeds and watch them grow.
Overturn rocks to search for bugs and worms… or play with fake worms. Recipe here.

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Photo Credit: Learning4kids.net

Is real mud a difficult texture for your little one?  Start with “ghost mud”.
Recipe here

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Photo Credit: TreeHouseTV.com

Make a Splash with these Water Activities

Water Fun!

Fill a tub with water beads and ocean animals for an awesome, hands-on aquarium.

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Freeze toy animals, foam puzzle pieces, or pretend jewelry in ice. Have your kiddos use squeeze bottles, and eye droppers of warm water to get them out. Instructions here.

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Photo Credit: LittleBinsForLittlehands.com

Green gross swamp sensory table. Recipe here.

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Photo Credit: NoTimeForFlashCards.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shaving Cream Car wash. Recipe here.

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Photo Credit: TreeHouseTV.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Let’s go to the Beach!

Feel the sand between your toes with these fun tactile activities.

Sand Slime. It’s ooey, it’s gooey…and sandy? Recipe: Here

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Photo Credit: GrowingAJeweledRose.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drawing letters in the sand, a perfect pairing of visual motor and tactile. Recipe here.

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Photo Credit: AnyGivenMoment.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kinetic Sand…semi sticky, and super moldable sand. Get it here.

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Good old sand box play…because nothing beats the classic, pale and shovel.

For more summer sensory ideas, or ways to adapt these activities to your child’s needs and goals, ask your occupational therapist at Easterseals DuPage & Fox Valley. For more information about occupational therapy visit our website.

Have a great summer!

 

Stir Crazy Kids: How to Stay Active this Winter

By: Laura Bueche, Occupational Therapist

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Oh the weather outside is frightful, and we are going crazy indoors. Just because there is snow and ice on the ground, does not mean your child’s arousal level is any lower.  On the contrary, it’s probably reaching a boiling point and you are looking for ways to get your kids the sensory stimulation and gross motor activity their little bodies are craving.

Getting your kids up and moving has a lot of benefits. The Department of Agriculture’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that children and adolescents engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days of the week, preferably daily. As an occupational therapist, I love physical activity because of the regulating aspects of proprioceptive input*, as well as development of coordination skills and strengthening opportunities.

*Proprioceptive input are sensations from joints, muscles and connective tissues that underlie body awareness. Input can be obtained by lifting, pushing, and pulling heavy objects, including one’s own weight. For example, climbing on a jungle gym, swinging across monkey bars, or pulling a wagon.

15_Brady PembrokeWhy is it helpful? Providing your child with more proprioceptive input throughout the day can help them:

  • Tolerate sensations and situations that are challenging
  • Regulate emotions, alertness and increase attention span
  • Reduce unwanted sensory seeking and sensory avoiding behaviors
  • Handle transitions with less stress (sensorysmarts.com)

For more information about sensory processing check out the post, How Sensitive is Too Sensitive?

In these bitter winter months, it is difficult to get your kids the physical
activity they need. Here are just a few ideas for indoor activities to give you and your family a much-needed break from being stuck at home.

Ideas for Local Indoor Activities

Ideas if You Can’t Leave the House

There is a crazy blizzard outside, what can I do with what I have at home? Here are some ideas to get kids some movement breaks when stuck indoors:

  • Build a furniture fort by pushing and pulling furniture and cushions from around the house.
  • Make an obstacle course by army crawling, jumping and doing jumping jacks to get to the finish line in record time.
  • The floor is hot lava! We all know this favorite.
  • Animal walk relay races: bear walk, crab walk, wheelbarrow, and penguin waddle across the room to roll the die of a board game or get stickers for a craft project.
  • Jump and crash into a pillow pile or onto the bed.
  • Jump rope with rhymes and songs.
  • Squeeze, squish, and smash Play-Doh.
  • Use a scooter, tricycle, or scooter board to propel through the house.
  • Squish your kids in a pillow pile; making sandwiches.
  • Swing your toddler in a blanket between you and another adult.
  • Push a vacuum or mop, collect the garbage, wipe down the table, load the laundry, and push the laundry basket.Cooper